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What Mutualism Was: An Incomplete History of Mutualist Tendencies

It has been over a decade since I started piecing together the pieces of mutualist history. At the time, the work had a curious urgency, as the handful of us who had gravitated to the “mutualist” label had a lot of ground to cover in order to really understand just what we had implicated ourselves in. The specific project of sketching all that early history is one in which I have invested less energy as the years went on, but I’ve never stopped documenting the bits of history that I have found. The links here will form an evolving and definitely incomplete history of the various tendencies that have been called “mutualist,” but I think even this fragmentary documentary history is quite useful for those now facing the same questions we did a decade ago.


What Mutualism Was

  1. (1845-1872)
  2. (1849)
  3. (1854)
  4. Mutualists in the First International
  5. (Benj. R. Tucker)
  6. (poem) (1874)
  7.  (1933)

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